Tolon V., Dray S., Loison A., Zeileis A., Fischer C., Baubet E. (2009). Responding to spatial and temporal variations in predation risk: space use of a game species in a changing landscape of fear. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 87:1129--1137.

Predators generate a "landscape of fear" within which prey can minimize the risk of predation by selecting low-risk areas. Depending on the spatial structure of this "landscape", i.e., whether it is coarse- or fine-grained, prey may respond to increased risk by shifting their home ranges or by fine-scale redistributions within these ranges, respectively. We studied how wild boar (Sus scrofa L., 1758) responded to temporal changes in risk in hunted areas (risky habitat) surrounding a nature reserve (refuge habitat). Animals with home ranges "in contact" with the reserve during the low-risk season were the only ones to shift toward the refuge when the risk increased. These shifts occurred at two temporal scales in response to the increased risk during the daytime and during the hunting season. Whereas animals not influenced by the reserve found food and shelter in forest during the hunting season, shifts to the refuge area were detrimental to the rather scarce forest areas in the reserve. This confirms that spatiotemporal changes in risk are major drivers of animal distribution when predation strongly limits their fitness. Their response is, however, scale-dependent and reflects at the individual level the perceived structure of their "landscape of fear".

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