# piecewiseSEM: Piecewise Structural Equation
Modeling in R

#### Jonathan S. Lefcheck

#### 2023-03-04

Structural equation modeling (SEM) is among the fastest growing
statistical techniques in ecology and evolution, and provides a new way
to explore and quantify ecological systems. SEM unites multiple
variables in a single causal network, thereby allowing simultaneous
tests of multiple hypotheses. The idea of causality is central to SEM as
the technique implicitly assumes that the relationships among variables
represent causal links. Because variables can be both predictors and
responses, SEM is also a useful tool for quantifying both direct and
indirect (cascading) effects.

I have written an e-book to accompany this and other software
packages (i.e., *lavaan*) to conduct SEM. The most up-to-date
examples and explanations can be found in this book. To access the book,
visit: An Introduction to
Structural Equation Modeling in R

And do not hesitate to reach out with questions or concerns!